Keynote Speech: Modelling and Control of Fluid Power Systems
Kazushi Sanada Professor, Yokohama National University
Kazushi Sanada received Bacheller degree in 1984, Master degree 1986, and Doctoral degree in 1996 on control engineering from Tokyo Institute of Technology. He was a Research Assistant in the Department of Control Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology. In 1998, he joined Yokohama National University as an Associate Professor. Since 2004, he has been Professor. His current research interest is modelling and control of fluid power systems. He is a Vice-President of the Japan Fluid Power System Society since 2016, and a Chairperson of the 10th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, Fukuoka, 2017.
Abstract: A main purpose of this paper is to review the methodology for modelling and control of fluid power systems from the author’s point of view. As examples of control, shift control of automatic transmission and a water-hydraulic moulding press are introduced. Robust control theories, such as H-infinity control and mu synthesis, are successfully applied to the fluid power systems. A merit of the robust control theory is that the modelling uncertainties are taken into account form the beginning of control system design process. The next section describes that modelling pipeline dynamics is a key technique to simulate dynamic behaviour of fuel injection of a common-rail system. Simulation technology enables us to study a new fuel injection system for marine diesel engines, which uses a direct drive volume control. A new idea of modelling cushion plunger for cylinder of construction machinery makes it possible to obtain the optimal plunger shape. Using CFD technology, an impeller used for boosting oil-hydraulic pump is optimised to reduce power loss across the impeller. From this paper, it will be shown that success of modelling and control of fluid power systems very much depends on deep understanding and experiences of the target system.
Keynote Speech: A Novel Self-powered Brake System and Anti-skid Control Method
Zongxia Jiao Professor, Beihang University
Zongxia Jiao received the B.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Zhejiang University, China in 1985 and 1991, respectively. From 1991 to 1993, he was a Postdoctoral Fellow with Beihang University (BUAA), Beijing, China. He has been a Professor since 1994 with BUAA, and is currently the Dean of the School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering. His research interests include fluid power and transmission, actuators and sensors. Prof. Jiao is the Cheung Kong Scholar Chair Professor and the recipient of the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars.
Abstract: Traditional hydraulic brake systems require complex system of pipelines between the aircraft Engine Driven Pump and the brake actuators, which increases the weight of the aircraft and may even cause serious vibration and leakage problem. In order to improve the reliability and safety of the aircraft, we propose a new Integrated Self-powered Brake System for aircrafts. It uses a hydraulic pump geared to the main wheel to recover a small part of the kinetic energy of the landing aircraft. The recovered energy then serves as the hydraulic power supplying for the brake actuators. It does not require additional hydraulic source, thus simplifying the pipelines system. The ISBS presents a good performance and provides a new solution in the field of the More Electric Aircraft brake system.
Keynote Speech: Towards energy efficient autonomous wheel loader
Kalevi Huhtala Professor, Tampere University of Technology
Professor Kalevi Huhtala is currently Head of Laboratory of Automation and Hydraulics in Tampere University of technology. Laboratory has eight professors and total staff of 90.
He is born in 1957 and he graduated from Tampere University of technology in 1996. Title of his doctor thesis is “Modelling of Hydrostatic Transmission - Steady-State, Linear and Non-Linear Models”. The nomination of professorship took place in 2003. The research field of the professorship is hydraulics in mobile machines.
His main research interests are autonomous mobile machines. He has supervised 9 doctoral theses and about 100 master theses. He has over 100 scientific publications and four patents. He has been member of scientific program committees of conferences in Aachen, Dresden, Linz, Hangzhou, Linköping and Tampere.
Abstract: This paper will give the state-of-art of the previously introduced research group work results. The research results and the studied off-road vehicle is autonomous wheel loader. The required control strategies, sensors, and algorithms for operating with autonomous wheel loaders are studied and presented in the paper. The control strategy is consisting of e.g. static and dynamic mapping, path planning, obstacle observation and avoidance. In the autonomous machines the situational awareness is in the key focus areas. How we are sensing the surroundings of the machine with the today’s sensors will be presented in the paper.
Power management and energy efficiency in hydraulic work machines are still active fields of research. Multiple architectures and configurations have been suggested concerning this field. In addition, implemented solutions that consider an entire machine are rarely presented. This paper introduces the research work of the control systems which are minimizing the fuel consumption. Compared to traditional controls, the new methods both reduce the fuel consumption and extend the operating range of a machine.
Keynote Speech: Trends for Hybrid Systems in Excavators
Hubertus Murrenhoff Professor, RWTH Aachen University
After his studies of Mechanical Engineering at RWTH Aachen University and obtaining the Dr. Degree in 1983 he was Chief Engineer till 1986 followed by a position at HSC Controls Inc., Amherst, NY. There he was in charge of Engineering and Marketing as Vice President. In 1991 he took the position of Technical Director of the companies Magnet-Schultz (MSM) and Elektromechanik (EM) in Memmingen, Germany with than 1300 employees. He belonged to the Board as Executive Vice President.
He followed the call back to his Alma Mata in October 1994 and became Executive Director of the Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls (IFAS). The institute focuses on all aspects of fluid power and is divided into five research groups. During his academic career in Aachen as Professor he was Head of the Collaborative Research Centre “Environmentally Friendly Tribological Systems” over the 12 year period and is now part of the Excellence Cluster “Tailor Made Fuels from Biomass” (TMFB) where IFAS is responsible for the tribological research subjects.
He was Co-Dean and Dean of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and is involved in many engineering related societies. He was awarded the Bramah and Koski Medal and became Fellow of RWTH.
Abstract: Todays mobile machines are mainly equipped with hydraulic drive trains. Because of the versatility of these machines they are used for a wide range of different applications with their designated demands. Hence various specialized hydraulic system architectures were developed for decades to meet the various requirements. So far these systems are characterized by a simple and robust design, which leads to low costs often associated by low efficiency. As a consequence mobile machines consume considerable amounts of fuel during their operating lifetimes, which is accompanied by high CO2 emissions. Hydraulic excavators, as one part of mobile construction machinery, are responsible for approximately 60% of these emissions. For this reason a lot of research was conducted both in academia and in industry to develop more efficient hydraulic architectures for excavators. However, the effect of just improving the hydraulics efficiency either has a minor influence on the machines fuel consumption or increases costs disproportionally. To fulfil future demands regarding fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, costs and productivity other system approaches are required. Therefore hybrid systems have been developed in recent years in industry as well as in academia and are partially already available on the market. Analysing these solutions two major improvements can be identified in comparison to conventional systems.
First of all they make use of energy recovery, which requires an additional source of energy and therefore a hybrid system approach. During typical duty cycles of excavators either the potential energy while lowering the boom or the kinetic energy while braking the swing drive can be recuperated. Thereby the amount of energy, which has to be delivered by the engine, is reduced leading to lower fuel consumption.
The second approach to diminish CO2 emissions aims to smooth the engines power over the cycle. Accordingly the combustion engine is used to actively charge the second energy source during low load phases whereas this stored energy assists the engine during peak power demands. By doing this the engines load is decoupled of the actuators power demand and can be held constant in a certain range.
Since both strategies reduce peak power demands lowering engine speed becomes possible, thus reducing idling losses and simultaneously increasing system efficiency. For both approaches hydraulic as well as electric architectures are available or are currently under development. The different concepts will be discussed in this paper.
Keynote Speech: Additive Manufacture of Hydraulic Components
Andrew Plummer Professor, University of Bath
Professor Andrew Plummer is Director of the Centre for Power Transmission and Motion Control at the University of Bath, UK. He has a variety of research interests in the field of motion and force control, including inverse-model based control of electrohydraulic servosystems, design and control of parallel kinematic mechanisms, model-in-the-loop testing, hybrid hydraulic/piezoelectric actuation, wave energy converters power take off optimisation, and active vehicle control.
He received his PhD degree from the University of Bath in 1991, for research in the field of adaptive control of electrohydraulic systems. He worked as a research engineer developing flight simulator motion systems before taking up a lecturing post at the University of Leeds. From 1999 he was global control systems R&D manager for Instron, manufacturers of materials and structural testing systems. Here he developed novel model-based control methods for high performance electrohydraulic test systems, including crash-testing catapults, Formula One racing car test rigs, earthquake simulation tables, and both very high speed and high frequency materials testing machines.
Professor Plummer was appointed to his present position in 2006. The Centre for Power Transmission and Motion Control, founded in 1968, has an international reputation as a centre of excellence in hydraulics, mechanical power transmission and motion control systems, with applications in the aerospace, automotive, robotics and renewable energy sectors amongst others.
Professor Plummer has chaired the UK Automatic Control Council, the IMechE Mechatronics Informatics and Control Group, and was a panel member of the UK government’s Research Excellence Framework (REF2014) assessment exercise. He is Associate Editor for IFAC Control Engineering Practice and the International Journal of Fluid Power.
Abstract: Additive manufacture gives the opportunity to create complex hydraulic components (e.g. valve bodies) which are of much reduced weight, only adding material where necessary. The geometry can be optimized to meet stringent design requirements, without the normal subtractive manufacturing constraints. For small production runs, for example production numbers typical in aerospace, manufacture can be very cost-effective, with high repeatability and low material waste. A significant reduction in part count and consequent simplification of assembly is also possible. With the dramatically increased speed of prototyping, AM promises a much shorter development cycle.
In this talk, the potential and challenges of AM for hydraulic components are reviewed, focusing on the powder bed fusion laser melting process. A detailed example is given of an aerospace servovalve body additively manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) on a Renishaw AM250. Laser melting is known to be successful with this material, although research is still required to ensure the characteristics and quality are suitable for aerospace applications. In particular, fatigue life is affected by surface finish and microstructure, and the effects of build process parameters and heat treatment are just starting to be understood. Certification questions arise with flight actuators and using additive manufacturing for safety critical parts requires new standards to be developed. Examples of other hydraulic AM components are also reviewed, including manifolds, actuators and other types of valves, for both aerospace and industrial applications.
Keynote Speech: My attempt to the robot revolution
Ken Ichiryu Professor, Professor Emeritus of Tokyo University of Technology, Guest Professor of Jilin University
Vice chairman and Director, Mechatronic Laboratory, Kikuchi Company
2161-12 Miyamacho Hachioji Tokyo Japan
Brief Biographical History:
1959 Joined Hitachi Research Laboratory of Hitachi Company
1986 Hitachi Construction Machine Company
1996 Professor of Tokyo University of Technology
2005 Joined Kikuchi Company
Electro-Hydraulic Control of Steel making Plant and Construction Machinery
Development of Three Dimensional Pipe Bending Machine and many other Mechanical Device
Membership in Academic Societies:
The Robotic Society Japan (RSJ)
Japan Fluid Power System Society
Japan Society for Precision Society and many other society
Abstract: Industrial robot played main role for the heavy machinery field such as automotive and construction from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 20 century. In some robot field, transition from hydraulic to electrical drive occurred in the first stage. But now, each drive has its own position. For example automotive assembly and welding robot became electrical drive because of its easy maintenance but construction machinery remains hydraulic drive because of its ruggedness. Entering on 21 century, elderly person problem became dominant in japan. As the result, welfare robot development is urgently discussed. As this robot directly contacts with human being, conventional hard robot is not fitted well for this application. Soft robot incorporating artificial rubber actuator is demanded. The author has being developing many kind of robot under this stream. But this flow suddenly disconnected by Tohoku large earthquake of 2013/3/11 which damaged Fukushima coastal area. We are going to build the third new robot for restoration of the area which will be shown in this paper.
Keynote Speech: Hydrostatic Transmission for Wind Power
Kim A. Stelson Professor, University of Minnesota
Kim A. Stelson is Director of the NSF-funded Engineering Research Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power. He is College of Science and Engineering Distinguished Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Minnesota where he has been since 1981. He received his B.S. from Stanford University in 1974 and his S.M. and Sc.D. from M.I.T. in 1977 and 1982. Stelson is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has twice been awarded the Rudolf Kalman Best Paper Award of the ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control. He has been awarded the Robert E. Koski Medal from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for contributions to fluid power.
Abstract: The global demand for renewable energy is increasing rapidly, and wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy source. Wind turbines on the market today are equipped with multi-stage fixed-ratio gearboxes. Gearbox failure is a major issue for modern wind turbines since it causes long down times and high maintenance cost. Unlike a fixed-ratio gearbox, a hydrostatic transmission (HST) has a variable ratio allowing the generator to run at rated speed regardless of wind speed. An HST is smaller, cheaper and more reliable than the currently used mechanical gearbox. To use an HST in a wind turbine, it is necessary to modify the control strategy, and using advanced control can further enhance the performance of the HST. To validate the performance of an HST wind turbine, a 105 kW power regenerative hydrostatic turbine test platform has built at the University of Minnesota. Results from experiments on this test platform will be presented.
Keynote Speech: Design and Test Rig for High Rotation Speed Axial Piston Pumps
Bing Xu Professor, Zhejiang University
He received PhD degree from Zhejiang University in 2001, and is currently a professor and doctoral supervisor in the department of mechanical engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Now he is the vice director of State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic System. He is a council member of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society and Chinese Construction Machinery Association. His research interests are hydraulic components, electro-hydraulic control, energy saving and noise reduction of mechatronics system. He undertook more than 40 research projects from Government and Industry. He is awarded the second prize of state scientific and technological progress once, the first prize province and ministry scientific and technological progress thrice. He published more than 80 journal papers indexed by SCI/EI, and applied 43 National Invention Patents with 25 granted.
Abstract: Thanks to the advantage of higher pressure and higher power density, axial piston pumps are widespread used both in Industry equipment and mobile machine. Recent years, with the demand of more electrical airplane and other applications, the Electro-Hydrostatic Actuators (EHA) are attracting more people’s attention. The axial piston pump used in EHA are required to be working not only on high rotation speed, but also on wide range variable rotation speed, for example from several hundred to twenty thousand rpm. In this speech, some design and test research work on high rotation speed axial piston pump will be briefly introduced, which the main contents including the rotary assembly component design and churning loss analysis, also the influence of dimension of key part, etc. Especially the innovation design on test rig for churning losses, slipper pair and piston pair will be introduced.
Keynote Speech: Development of Electro-Hydraulic Driving Systems for the Hard Rock Tunnel Boring Machine
Huayong Yang Professor, Director, School of Mechanical Engineering, Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, Zhejiang University
Huayong Yang received a doctor degree of Philosophy from the University of Bath in 1988, and joined the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Zhejiang University as a Post-doctor researcher in 1989. He is now a Professor and the director of the State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems in Zhejiang University. His research interests are in motion control and energy saving of mechatronic systems, development of fluid power component and system, integration of electro-hydraulic system and engineering application. Yang has 169 invention patents, (co)authored 3 academic books, over 76 Science Citation Index (SCI) papers and 210 Engineering Index （EI） papers published.
Abstract: TBM is a typical highly integrated product consists of machinery, electricity, hydraulic and computer science, which has been widely used in hard rock tunnel construction with its advantage of high efficiency and safety. Developed driving system should be designed against complex geographical condition. Structure improved double-piston hydro viscous clutch (HVC) was designed and introduced to cutterhead driving system together with inertia flywheel, the rotation kinetic energy stored within flywheel could be translated to stuck cutterhead smoothly and continuously together with motor torque by the transmission ratio change of (HVC). Dynamic structure model of TBM was established, rock recognition based ground pressure control strategy was developed to set suitable support force, and adaptive thrust force control method was proposed for the thrust system to reduce the propulsion disturbing force caused by posture angle derivation. Trajectory planning and tracking control was proposed, new attitude adjusting hydraulic system was designed and synchronous displacement control of decoupled cylinders was discussed. The proposed system and control strategy will be verified on a scaled TBM test rig to compare their performance with the product used in an irrigation project.
Keynote Speech: Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics Methods for Engineering and Theoretical Problems in the Field of Hydraulic Drive and Hydraulic Machines
Semenov Stanislav E. Professor, Bauman Moscow State Technical University
Petrov Alexey Igorevich Associate Professor, Bauman Moscow State Technical University
(on behalf of Prof. Semenov to report)
Head of the Department of «Fluid mechanics, hydraulic machines and hydraulic and pneumatic control systems» of Moscow State Technical University named after N.E. Bauman, Russia. Teaches courses "Electrics", "Mechatronics" and "Hydraulic drives" for students of the department, developed appropriate training programs. He led the development of a number of hydraulic machines, hydraulic transport vehicles, construction of hydraulic equipment. The area of scientific interests include electrohydraulic actuators of walking robots. The author of 36 journal articles, 5 monographs, 11 patents.
Abstract: Over the past 10 years E-10 department of BMSTU took part in more than 50 works on research and development of hydraulic actuators and hydraulic machines of all types with a wide use of computational fluid dynamics methods. Applying STAR CCM+ software to the calculations our department developed improved algorithms for tasks such as the study of unsteady processes in valves of hydraulic drives, the study of hydrodynamic forces on the edges of spool valves, fluid flow calculation in paths of axial-piston positive displacement pumps, optimization of centrifugal pumps wet parts, calculation of hydrodynamic forces on centrifugal pumps rotors, calculations of jet devices and a number of other tasks. A broad experimental verification of used calculation models was carried out including 3D-prototyping technology.